Posts Tagged ‘Travel International’

Determination of the Electron Dimension

September 25th, 2022


As known, matter at the fundamental level consists of quarks and leptons. Quarks combine to form hadrons, mostly baryons and mesons via the strong force and are presumed to still well confined. Among the baryons are the proton (the positive electrical charge) and neutrons (with zero electric charge) that they combine to form atomic nuclei of all chemical elements of the periodic table. Normally, a cloud of electrons (negative electric charge and exactly opposite to that of the proton) surrounds these cores. The assembly formed by a core and a cloud, which comprises negative electrons and positive protons, is an atom. Atoms can be arranged together to form larger and more complex structures such as molecules (Mirsayar et al., 2017).

Chemistry is the science that describes how nuclei and electrons are combined to form various elements and molecules.

In a more cosmological vision matter and antimatter are considered. Each sub-particle of an atom may be counterbalanced with an (anti-) antimatter pair (e.g., electron-positron). An antimatter particle differs from its partner by the fact that all its various “fillers” (electric charge, spin, color charge, etc.) are opposite. However, such particles have the same mass.

Although the fundamental laws of physics do not indicate a preference for matter over antimatter, cosmological observations indicate that the universe consists almost entirely of matter.

The material can be found in several states or phases. The four most known states are solid, liquid, gas and plasma. There are also other a little more exotic states such as liquid crystal, Bose-Einstein, super-fluid and supercritical fluid (Bose-Einstein, Wikipedia). When the material passes from one state to another, it performs a phase transition. This phenomenon (which is associated to changes in physical parameters: Pressure, temperature, volume, density, energy, etc.) is studied in thermodynamic via the phase diagrams.

Protect Yourself When Shopping Online – What You Need to Know

March 22nd, 2022

Shopping online allows us to research and find just the right product at the best price, anytime of the day or night. But how do you maintain your safety and privacy in the online environment?

Here’s what you need to know to protect yourself when online shopping.

1. Purchase only from well-established companies.

Just about anyone can get a merchant account online and ask for your credit card number. Your best bet is to do business only with reputable online merchants that have established privacy and return policies. These policies should be easily accessible from the main page of the website, and a site’s Privacy Policy should indicate the type of information that the site collects and how it uses that information.

2. Guard your personal information carefully.

It’s always a good idea to give as little personal information as is required by any website. Fill out required fields only, and don’t give your personal information unless you are comfortable with the policies listed on the site.

Sometimes, when you make an online purchase or even when you’re simply registering as a customer at an online merchant, you’ll see a checkbox that will allow you to either opt in or opt out of certain mailings. Read these offers carefully. A merchant may be asking for your permission to share your contact information with other companies.

3. Look for browser clues and safe shopping logos.

Before you enter your credit card number, make sure that the ‘https’ code appears in front of the URL in your browser. Also look for the symbol in the lower right corner of your browser that indicates a secure connection. (Depending on your browser, this is typically a padlock or a key). Also look for the ‘VeriSign’ logo or ‘Hacker-Safe’ logo on the website. And don’t ever email your credit card number to a merchant.

4. Protect your passwords.

When you create a password on any site that contains personal and/or financial data, make the password unique – instead of your birthday or your telephone number, for example, use a combination of letters and numbers. Write down your passwords, keep them in a safe place, and don’t share them with anyone.

5. Charge it.

Use a credit card, instead of a debit card. When you make a purchase with a credit card, you are protected under the Fair Credit Billing Act, which means that you have the right to dispute charges and even withhold payment for charges that were made without your authorization. When shopping around for a credit card, check for additional online security benefits or protection offered by cards.

6. Go with your gut.

If something doesn’t feel right to you, don’t hit the ‘submit’ button. Back out of the transaction by erasing the data and closing the window.

7.Beware of Phishing scams.

Phishing involves emails or popups that appear to be from authentic websites or financial sources asking you to update your account information. These are becoming increasingly sophisticated. The best bet is to avoid clicking on links in an email, even those that appear to come from respected and established sites, such as paypal, ebay, or your credit card companies. Instead, type the company’s website address directly into your browser. When contacting a company in regard to your personal and financial information, use the URLs, telephone numbers, and mailing addresses located on your account statements – not those that appear in an email.

8. Beware of free offers.

Companies may use a sweepstakes offer or freebie to entice you to submit your personal information. Again, its best to share personal information only with reputable, established sites, and to read the privacy policies on these sites and in association with these free offers. If you do enter your email address in this kind of promotion, use a separate email address, such as those provided by yahoo or hotmail.